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NumPy - Statistical Functions 介绍

NumPy具有许多有用的统计函数,用于从数组中的给定元素中查找最小值,最大值,百分位数标准偏差和方差等。功能解释如下-

numpy.amin()和numpy.amax()

这些函数沿指定轴从给定数组中的元素返回最小值和最大值。

import numpy as np 
a = np.array([[3,7,5],[8,4,3],[2,4,9]]) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a  
print '\n'  

print 'Applying amin() function:' 
print np.amin(a,1) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying amin() function again:' 
print np.amin(a,0) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying amax() function:' 
print np.amax(a) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying amax() function again:' 
print np.amax(a, axis = 0)

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[[3 7 5]
[8 4 3]
[2 4 9]]

Applying amin() function:
[3 3 2]

Applying amin() function again:
[2 4 3]

Applying amax() function:
9

Applying amax() function again:
[8 7 9]

numpy.ptp()

The numpy.ptp() function returns the range (maximum-minimum) of values along an axis.

import numpy as np 
a = np.array([[3,7,5],[8,4,3],[2,4,9]]) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying ptp() function:' 
print np.ptp(a) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying ptp() function along axis 1:' 
print np.ptp(a, axis = 1) 
print '\n'   

print 'Applying ptp() function along axis 0:'
print np.ptp(a, axis = 0) 

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[[3 7 5]
[8 4 3]
[2 4 9]]

Applying ptp() function:
7

Applying ptp() function along axis 1:
[4 5 7]

Applying ptp() function along axis 0:
[6 3 6]

numpy.percentile()

Percentile (or a centile) is a measure used in statistics indicating the value below which a given percentage of observations in a group of observations fall. The function numpy.percentile() takes the following arguments.

numpy.percentile(a, q, axis)

哪里,

Sr.No.Argument & Description
1

a

输入数组

2

q

要计算的百分位数必须在0-100之间

3

沿其计算百分位数的轴

import numpy as np 
a = np.array([[30,40,70],[80,20,10],[50,90,60]]) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying percentile() function:' 
print np.percentile(a,50) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying percentile() function along axis 1:' 
print np.percentile(a,50, axis = 1) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying percentile() function along axis 0:' 
print np.percentile(a,50, axis = 0)

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[[30 40 70]
 [80 20 10]
 [50 90 60]]

Applying percentile() function:
50.0

Applying percentile() function along axis 1:
[ 40. 20. 60.]

Applying percentile() function along axis 0:
[ 50. 40. 60.]

numpy.median()

Median is defined as the value separating the higher half of a data sample from the lower half. The numpy.median() function is used as shown in the following program.

import numpy as np 
a = np.array([[30,65,70],[80,95,10],[50,90,60]]) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying median() function:' 
print np.median(a) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying median() function along axis 0:' 
print np.median(a, axis = 0) 
print '\n'  
 
print 'Applying median() function along axis 1:' 
print np.median(a, axis = 1)

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[[30 65 70]
 [80 95 10]
 [50 90 60]]

Applying median() function:
65.0

Applying median() function along axis 0:
[ 50. 90. 60.]

Applying median() function along axis 1:
[ 65. 80. 60.]

numpy.mean()

Arithmetic mean is the sum of elements along an axis divided by the number of elements. The numpy.mean() function returns the arithmetic mean of elements in the array. If the axis is mentioned, it is calculated along it.

import numpy as np 
a = np.array([[1,2,3],[3,4,5],[4,5,6]]) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying mean() function:' 
print np.mean(a) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying mean() function along axis 0:' 
print np.mean(a, axis = 0) 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying mean() function along axis 1:' 
print np.mean(a, axis = 1)

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[[1 2 3]
 [3 4 5]
 [4 5 6]]

Applying mean() function:
3.66666666667

Applying mean() function along axis 0:
[ 2.66666667 3.66666667 4.66666667]

Applying mean() function along axis 1:
[ 2. 4. 5.]

numpy.average()

Weighted average is an average resulting from the multiplication of each component by a factor reflecting its importance. The numpy.average() function computes the weighted average of elements in an array according to their respective weight given in another array. The function can have an axis parameter. If the axis is not specified, the array is flattened.

考虑到数组[1,2,3,4]和相应的权重[4,3,2,1],通过将相应元素的乘积相加并将其总和除以权重之和来计算加权平均值。

加权平均值=(1 * 4 + 2 * 3 + 3 * 2 + 4 * 1)/(4 + 3 + 2 + 1)

import numpy as np 
a = np.array([1,2,3,4]) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a 
print '\n'  

print 'Applying average() function:' 
print np.average(a) 
print '\n'  

# this is same as mean when weight is not specified 
wts = np.array([4,3,2,1]) 

print 'Applying average() function again:' 
print np.average(a,weights = wts) 
print '\n'  

# Returns the sum of weights, if the returned parameter is set to True. 
print 'Sum of weights' 
print np.average([1,2,3, 4],weights = [4,3,2,1], returned = True)

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[1 2 3 4]

Applying average() function:
2.5

Applying average() function again:
2.0

Sum of weights
(2.0, 10.0)

在多维数组中,可以指定用于计算的轴。

import numpy as np 
a = np.arange(6).reshape(3,2) 

print 'Our array is:' 
print a 
print '\n'  

print 'Modified array:' 
wt = np.array([3,5]) 
print np.average(a, axis = 1, weights = wt) 
print '\n'  

print 'Modified array:' 
print np.average(a, axis = 1, weights = wt, returned = True)

它将产生以下输出-

Our array is:
[[0 1]
 [2 3]
 [4 5]]

Modified array:
[ 0.625 2.625 4.625]

Modified array:
(array([ 0.625, 2.625, 4.625]), array([ 8., 8., 8.]))

标准偏差

标准偏差是与均值平方差的平均值的平方根。标准偏差的公式如下-

std = sqrt(mean(abs(x - x.mean())**2))

如果数组为[1,2,3,4],则其平均值为2.5。因此,平方差为[2.25、0.25、0.25、2.25],其均方根除以4,即sqrt(5/4)为1.1180339887498949。

import numpy as np 
print np.std([1,2,3,4])

它将产生以下输出-

1.1180339887498949 

方差

方差 is the average of squared deviations, i.e., mean(abs(x - x.mean())**2). In other words, the standard deviation is the square root of variance.

import numpy as np 
print np.var([1,2,3,4])

它将产生以下输出-

1.25
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