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Design Patterns - Composite Pattern 介绍

复合模式用于需要以类似方式将一组对象视为单个对象的情况。合成模式根据树结构组成对象,以表示部分以及整个层次结构。这种设计模式属于结构模式,因为该模式创建了一组对象的树形结构。

此模式创建一个包含其自己的对象组的类。此类提供了修改其相同对象组的方法。

我们通过以下示例演示复合模式的使用,在该示例中我们将显示组织的员工层次结构。

实作

我们有一个 Employee 类,它充当复合模式参与者类。 CompositePatternDemo ,我们的演示类将使用 Employee 类添加部门级别的层次结构并打印所有员工。

Composite Pattern UML Diagram

第1步

创建具有 Employee 对象列表的 Employee 类。

Employee.java

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.List;

public class Employee {
   private String name;
   private String dept;
   private int salary;
   private List<Employee> subordinates;

   //constructor
   public Employee(String name,String dept, int sal) {
      this.name = name;
      this.dept = dept;
      this.salary = sal;
      subordinates = new ArrayList<Employee>();
   }

   public void add(Employee e) {
      subordinates.add(e);
   }

   public void remove(Employee e) {
      subordinates.remove(e);
   }

   public List<Employee> getSubordinates(){
     return subordinates;
   }

   public String toString(){
      return ("Employee :[ Name : " + name + ", dept : " + dept + ", salary :" + salary+" ]");
   }   
}

第2步

使用 Employee 类创建和打印员工层次结构。

CompositePatternDemo.java

public class CompositePatternDemo {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
   
      Employee CEO = new Employee("John","CEO", 30000);

      Employee headSales = new Employee("Robert","Head Sales", 20000);

      Employee headMarketing = new Employee("Michel","Head Marketing", 20000);

      Employee clerk1 = new Employee("Laura","Marketing", 10000);
      Employee clerk2 = new Employee("Bob","Marketing", 10000);

      Employee salesExecutive1 = new Employee("Richard","Sales", 10000);
      Employee salesExecutive2 = new Employee("Rob","Sales", 10000);

      CEO.add(headSales);
      CEO.add(headMarketing);

      headSales.add(salesExecutive1);
      headSales.add(salesExecutive2);

      headMarketing.add(clerk1);
      headMarketing.add(clerk2);

      //print all employees of the organization
      System.out.println(CEO); 
      
      for (Employee headEmployee : CEO.getSubordinates()) {
         System.out.println(headEmployee);
         
         for (Employee employee : headEmployee.getSubordinates()) {
            System.out.println(employee);
         }
      }		
   }
}

第三步

验证输出。

Employee :[ Name : John, dept : CEO, salary :30000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Robert, dept : Head Sales, salary :20000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Richard, dept : Sales, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Rob, dept : Sales, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Michel, dept : Head Marketing, salary :20000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Laura, dept : Marketing, salary :10000 ]
Employee :[ Name : Bob, dept : Marketing, salary :10000 ]
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